computer security

computer and security


Law

Data Protection Act 1998

The Data Protection Act 1998 came into being, to update a previous act. This was to comply with the European Rights Convention, Article 8 – giving people the right of privacy. If any size company collects information about people, in particularly personnel information such as credit card number, address, name, telephone number etc, you must follow the data protection guidelines.

  • You must say what the data is for and why you collect it (this you must stick to and not use the data for any other purpose).
  • You must register your data collection system with the information commission.
  • Personnel data about people must be lawfully obtained
  • Data held must be must be accurate.
  • You must show information stored about a person to the subject of that data and delete it, if told to by the subject of the data.
  • You should not give the information about people to anyone else without permission, except to police only if they need it prevent a crime or to catch a suspect or if they have a warrant.
  • You must prevent unauthorised access and processing of data (using appropriate security methods).
  • You must not allow personnel data to be accidentally lost, damaged or altered, (using appropriate security methods).

Penalties

As from April 2010 any company that breaks the act can be fined up to £500,000 dependant on the seriousness of the breach.

Computer Misuse Act 1990

The computer misuse act was started to stop a loop hole in the law, after two people broke into the British Telecom's Prestel computer system and Prince Philip’s message box in 1985.

This Act states you should not:-

  • Access computers which you are unauthorised to access.
  • Access computers which you are unauthorised to access, to cause damage or perform other crimes with the information you obtained illegally.
  • Modify computers or data you, do not have the right to access.

Penalties

  • Access computers which you are Unauthorized Access, is called a summary offence and penalties are limited to 6 months imprisonment and/or a maximum fine of £5000.
  • Access computers which you are unauthorized to access, to cause damage or perform other crimes with information obtained illegally is a serious crime and carries jail terms of up to 5 years and unlimited fines.
  • Modify computers or data you, do not have the right to access is again a serious crime and carries a jail terms of up to 5 years and unlimited fines.

Computer and Data security

You must protect your computer against things that can damage it and the data on it

 

How can we protect computer systems?

  • Not making passwords too easy to guess.
  • Backing up data on computer systems.
  • Using Antivirus/Malware/Spyware checkers (Make sure the spyware /malware/ antivirus software is not fake, to be on safe side use a known one like Kaspersky, Norton, MacAfee (paid), Microsoft Essentials (free) MalwareBytes (good Professional checker).
  • Use firewalls, this blocks unauthorized access to your computer.
  • When you move away from Computer/workstations Lock it (ctrl-alt-del, Lock Computer)
  • Using a Uninterruptible Power Supply (ups)(battery backup that prevents computer being damage due to power cuts).
  • Using surge protection.
  • Erasing Data on Hard Drives before disposing.

cases where data has been found on hard drives

    “A study conducted by Kessler International, a world leader specializing in computer forensics, determined that over 40% of the hard drives listed for sale on eBay still contain personal, private, and sensitive information otherwise thought to be erased.” Kessler International.

    “Sensitive information for shooting down intercontinental missiles as well as bank details and NHS records was found on old computers, researchers say”. BBC News.

    “Medical records, confidential letters and X-rays of patients in Lanarkshire have been found on second-hand computer hard drives”. BBC News.

Laptops and Security

One of the worst areas for data getting out is data on laptops, below is a list of things to do to secure your business laptop

  • Not Leaving your Password with your Laptop Case.
  • Be careful what Data you put on your Laptop.
  • Encrypt your laptop.
  • use screen shield (prevents the laptop screen being view from side).
  • Use Laptop desk lock when one is available (device you can use to lock the laptop to a desk).
  • Don’t leave the laptop lying Around .

Further Reading

  • (2009) Data Protection (3rd Edition) Peter Carey, Oxford University Press.
  • (2008) Introduction to information Technology Law (6th Edition) David I. Bainbridge, Pearson Longman.
  • (2002) Information Security Best Practices: 205 Basic Rules By George L. Stefanek, Butterworth Heinemann.
  • (1990) Computers Under Attack By Peter J. Denning (editor), Published by Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.

computer safety


Introduction

In this report we will be looking computer law, how to protect your computers and health and safety of computer, this report is also about children and the Internet

2 Hackers the law and protecting computer systems

2.1 Hackers

The definition of the word hacker from the foldoc free computer online dictionary found at http://foldoc.org/?query=hacker

    1. One who programs enthusiastically (even obsessively) or who enjoys programming rather than just theorizing about programming.
    2. A person capable of appreciating hack value.
    3. A person who is good at programming quickly. /li>
    4. An expert at a particular program, or one who frequently does work using it or on it; as in "a Unix hacker.(Definitions 1 through 5 are correlated, and people who fit them congregate.)
    5. An expert or enthusiast of any kind. One might be an astronomy hacker, for example.
    6. One who enjoys the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming or circumventing limitations.
    7. (Deprecated) A malicious meddler who tries to discover sensitive information by poking around. Hence "password hacker" "network hacker". The correct term is cracker.
    8. The term "hacker" also tends to connote membership in the global community defined by the net (see The Network and Internet address). It also implies that the person described is seen to subscribe to some version of the hacker ethic.
    9. It is better to be described as a hacker by others than to describe oneself that way. Hackers consider themselves something of an elite (a meritocracy based on ability), though one to which new members are gladly welcome. Thus while it is gratifying to be called a hacker, false claimants to the title are quickly labelled as "bogus" or a "wannabee"
    10. University of Maryland, rare) A programmer who does not understand proper programming techniques and principles and doesn't have a Computer Science degree. Someone who just bangs on the keyboard until something happens. For example, "This program is nothing but spaghetti code. It must have been written by a hacker"

In this section we are really looking at paragraph 7 (in the quote above) of the word hacker, which is really a misused term in this case, as a hacker is really a person who likes programming or likes building, stretching or making better computer systems, some of the early pioneers of computers can be referred to as hackers, hackers are the people who develop open source software, please see the article entitled open systems: open source software in this website

What we are really talking about here are crackers, some crackers are also programmers but their programs destroy and are called viruses, they also like breaking the law and getting into systems they should not be getting into for so called fun by getting around your system security measures on your computer systems.

Crackers are anti social people that can destroy a whole system in a matter of minutes that took years to build.

But as everyone knows these crackers are now called hackers as the media uses this term a lot to describe crackers, we will continue to use this word in the rest of this document for clarity of what we are talking about.

Sometimes hackers will get into a system to destroy it by viruses or using other methods that attack the system, sometimes they get in steal information held on your computer or deface websites; sometimes they do a bit of both, whatever the reason for them to be in your system they should not be there.

Having said this there are ethical hackers about who just test the security of systems and don’t do any damage, these people are sometimes security experts you can hire to test your systems security, sometimes they test the system without you hiring them just to make people aware of the security holes in the systems.

2.2 The law

Hacking is a crime and is against the computer misuse act 1990, also under the Data Protection act 1998 is protection of data so companies need to guard there system from these people

Companies also need to know about the data protection act if you keep records about people on your system as it tells you what you can do with the information and why you can store it

2.3 Data Protection act 1998

If any size company collects information about people, in particularly personnel information such as credit card number, address, name, telephone number etc, you must follow the data protection guidelines

  • You must say what the data is for and why you collect it (this you must stick to).
  • You must register your data collection system with the information commission,
  • You should not the give the information about people to anyone else without permission
  • You must keep information safe using passwords etc.
  • You must show information stored about a person to the subject of that data and delete it, if told to by the subject of the data

(For the purpose of protecting your systems, the keeping the data safe is important here, what you do with the data is covered in the rest of the act which is also very important to follow as the data held about people is sensitive information and should only be held on your system if you have a valid reason for doing so)

2.4 Computer Misuse Act 1990

This Act states you should not:-

  • Access computers which you are unauthorised to access.
  • Access computers which you are unauthorised to access to cause damage or perform other crimes with the information you obtained illegally
  • Modify computers or data you do not have the right to access

(This act is really talking to the hacker, it in important not to become one because if you do you are breaking the law)

2.5 Protecting computer systems

Keeping in mind these acts the issues of protecting data must be addressed such as the use of passwords and the room the computer system is in must not be left unlocked so that unauthorised people can have access to the system.

Another safe guard measure is when you sale your computer or it no longer works and you are disposing of it is to wipe the data off the hard drive so that people can not get hold of it.

If sensitive information is on a laptop, which it really should not be, but if it is you need to guard it with you life and not lose it.

Is this what the bbc say about the subject of hard drives and laptops in a article called “Hard drive secrets sold cheaply” found at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3788395.stm

“A hard drive containing sensitive information on one of Europe's largest financial services groups has been purchased on an internet auction site for just a fiver.

The hard drive was bought as part of research into what happens to lost or stolen laptops. It contained information including pension plans, dates of birth and home addresses of customers.

The research was conducted by security firm Pointsec Mobile Technologies. The hard drive in question was purchased on eBay. As well as customer information, it contained personnel details such as payroll records and login codes for the secure intranet site.

If exposed, it could have had serious consequences in terms of customer confidence as well as affecting the share price and legal position of the company.”

one IT security magazine, Law Enforcement Technology Magazine in a article by Stephen Elderkin entitled Permanently Erase Deleted Files said this about hard drives found at http://www.whitecanyon.com/deleted-files-let-10-2003.php

“The only way to guarantee all data has been erased from a hard drive is to overwrite all sectors on the disk with artificial information, such as overwriting configurations with random patterns of ones and zeros. Although this sounds complex, there is an easy way to do this.

Drives can be sanitized and made ready for sale, donation or disposal by using a disk sanitizing tool. The disk sanitizing tool talks directly to the drive and overwrites all contents on the disk, including the boot record, master file tables, deleted files and contents of all files. At the completion of this process, users can have confidence that all of their data has been erased, and the drive can then be safely sold, donated or disposed.

There are a variety of easy-to-use hard disk sanitizers on the market today that can perform complete hard disk sanitization. There are even solutions that are compliant with the U.S. Department of Defence’s disk sanitizing standards, one of the most rigorous data deletion standards".

One such user-friendly solution approved by the U.S. Department of Defence is WipeDrive 3.0 from WhiteCanyon Software, Inc. in Orem, Utah.

You must also use UPS’s (uninterruptible power supply) and Surge Protection to prevent the data being deleted or damaged.

You must change the passwords of the system regularly and not to use words as passwords which can be easily guessed i.e. words such as pet names etc which can be easily be discovered by a hacker if they wanted to get into the system.

You should also make use of firewalls and virus checkers

2.6 Firewall

A firewall is software or hardware that sits between a private network or a single home computer and the Internet and acts like a kind of computer filter preventing unwanted people from entering your system

This is what vicomsoft’s knowledge base says about firewalls found at http://www.vicomsoft.com/knowledge/reference/firewalls1.html

“A firewall sits at the junction point or gateway between the two networks, usually a private network and a public network such as the Internet. The earliest firewalls were simply routers. The term firewall comes from the fact that by segmenting a network into different physical subnetworks, they limited the damage that could spread from one subnet to another just like fire doors or firewalls.

A firewall examines all traffic routed between the two networks to see if it meets certain criteria. If it does, it is routed between the networks, otherwise it is stopped. A firewall filters both inbound and outbound traffic. It can also manage public access to private networked resources such as host applications. It can be used to log all attempts to enter the private network and trigger alarms when hostile or unauthorized entry is attempted. Firewalls can filter packets based on their source and destination addresses and port numbers. This is known as address filtering. Firewalls can also filter specific types of network traffic. This is also known as protocol filtering because the decision to forward or reject traffic is dependant upon the protocol used.”

2.7 Computer viruses

Computer viruses are small pieces of program code at sometimes lock on to the boot sector of the computer system they can Replicate itself as it spreads around the system and causes damage.

This is what the website how stuff works descries them found at http://www.howstuffworks.com/virus.htm

”Computer viruses tend to grab our attention. On the one hand, viruses show us how vulnerable we are. A properly engineered virus can have an amazing effect on the worldwide Internet. On the other hand, they show how sophisticated and interconnected human beings have become.

For example, experts estimate that the Mydoom worm infected approximately a quarter-million computers in a single day in January 2004. (Times Online). Back in March 1999, the Melissa virus was so powerful that it forced Microsoft and a number of other very large companies to completely turn off their e-mail systems until the virus could be contained. The ILOVEYOU virus in 2000 had a similarly devastating effect. That's pretty impressive when you consider that the Melissa and ILOVEYOU viruses are incredibly simple.

When you listen to the news, you hear about many different forms of electronic infection. The most common are:

Viruses - A virus is a small piece of software that piggybacks on real programs. For example, a virus might attach itself to a program such as a spreadsheet program. Each time the spreadsheet program runs, the virus runs, too, and it has the chance to reproduce (by attaching to other programs) or wreak havoc.

E-mail viruses - An e-mail virus moves around in e-mail messages, and usually replicates itself by automatically mailing itself to dozens of people in the victim's e-mail address book.

Worms - A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole, and then starts replicating from there, as well.

Trojan horses - A Trojan horse is simply a computer program. The program claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk). Trojan horses have no way to replicate automatically. “

The computer security resource center (CSRC) says this about computer viruses found at http://csrc.nist.gov/virus/

“Viruses are the colds and flues of computer security: ubiquitous, at times impossible to avoid despite the best efforts and often very costly to an organization's productivity.

NIST recommends using a two-tiered approach for detecting and preventing viruses from spreading:

On personal computers, install and use anti-virus software capable of scanning disks, attachments to email, files downloaded from the web, and documents generated by word processing and spreadsheet programs.

Use anti-virus software at Internet gateways or firewalls to scan email attachments and other downloaded files.

Anti-virus software should be installed when the personal computer is initially configured. The software should be updated weekly with new virus definitions, and your vendor may provide an automated update feature. Organizations may benefit from using several brands of anti-virus software.

For an updated website of virus information, check out the Symantec virus database. The WildList site provides a list of viruses that are currently loose "in the wild," or active and infecting systems at the current moment. “

2.8 Data quality and reliability

The system must be reliable in other words it must not fail and the data held on it must be accurate because it is people’s personal information and must not have mistakes.

You need to test the systems to breaking point before handing the system to the client, this way you can rule out any mistakes in the system, also you would have to build in error checks into the system, Data held in systems must be updated and checked

3 health and safety

In this section we will be looking at health and safety when working with computers.

Peoples safety when using computers comes under two EU Regulations, The Health and Safety of Display Equipment 1992 and the Electricity at work regulations 1989, this also comes under The Health and Safety at work act 1974. These Regulations are managed by the Health and safety Executive

Below are some guidelines from the Massachusetts institute of technology about computer safety please also see, fig1 and fig2 for health and safety guideline diagrams – numbers on the right refer to fig2

 how to sit next to a computer. This diagram refers to the health and safety with computers

  • (5)Feet rest flat on the floor or on a footrest
  • (2)Thigh is supported by soft chair
  • (3)Adjust chair height if you need to
  • (1)Adjust back of chair if you need to
  • (2)Lower back is supported
  • (7)Upper arms hang loosely from the shoulder, Forearms extend horizontally to the floor towards the keyboard
  • (10)Keyboard is lowered and angled slightly away (negative pitch) so the wrist is in neutral position
  • (10)Mouse is next to the keyboard at the same level
  • (8)Wrists do not lean on any surface (including wrist rests) while typing or using the mouse
  • Typist is centred in front of the monitor
  • There is no glare on the monitor
  • Eyes are at a comfortable distance from the monitor
  • (9)Eyes look down at the monitor at a 15-20 degree angle
  • If telephone use is frequent, use a headset instead of a hands
  • Use blinds on windows to prevent glare on screen.
  • Route the cables of the computer so they so they do not come a trip hazards.
  • PAT (Portable Appliance Test) all electronic equipment in a public place.
  • Get sound distractions to a minimum.
  • Use a desk lamp rather then overhead strip lights. Keep heat down.
  • Take regular breaks away from the computer so you don’t get eye stain

(Fig 1) Positioning computer equipment in relation to a window

Good. No direct light can fall on the screen

Bad. The operator will be badly distracted by the bright window behind the screen

Acceptable. There will be some reflection on the screen but only at a wide angle

Good. Little or no direct light can fall on the screen

Bad. There will be severe reflections on the screen from the window

(Diagrams From: Church Computing a Strategy by Garth Morgan published by Jay books 1987)

computers bring other health problems to men, when it comes to Fertility, a new study has shown that perching laptop computers on the lap may cause fertility health problems, due to the heat generated by the laptop

In a article entitled Laptop Computers May Affect Male Fertility on the WebMD website the author says this about the subject, found at http://www.webmd.com/content/article/98/104676.htm

“Dec. 8, 2004 -- Male fertility may be affected by perching laptop computers on the lap, according to a new study.

Balancing laptop computers on the lap raises the scrotum's temperature, say researchers including Yefim Sheynkin, MD, FACS, of the urology department at the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

About 15%-20% of couples that want to get pregnant aren't able to conceive. Many of those cases trace back to issues relating to the male. Gradually declining sperm production has been noted in recent decades, say the researchers.

Elevated scrotal temperatures have been linked to male infertility. Many factors can raise scrotal temperature, including hot baths, saunas, and tight jockey shorts.

Laptop computers may also belong on that list, say Sheynkin's team. They studied 29 healthy young men ages 21 to 35 for two, one-hour sessions in a climate-controlled room.

Participants were all similarly dressed in casual clothes. After having their body temperature taken and standing in the room for 15 minutes to adjust to the room's temperature, they sat down and were given working or nonworking laptop computers.

The researchers used two brands of Pentium 4 laptop computers. The brands aren't identified in the study, which appears in the European journal Human Reproduction.

The men balanced the computers on their laps. The researchers then removed the nonworking computers, instructing the men to hold the position for the rest of the session. Participants with working laptop computers kept the computers in place throughout the session.

The men's scrotal temperature was recorded every three minutes. The temperature on the bottom of the working computers was also monitored.

Scrotal temperature rose with the working and nonworking computers. However, the working laptops prompted a greater increase in scrotal temperature -- around a 5 degrees Fahrenheit increase (or about 2.7 degrees Celsius).

Participants without working laptops had a scrotal temperature increase of about 3 to 4 degrees Fahrenheit (2.1 degrees Celsius).

Technology doesn't deserve all the blame. The position required to balance a laptop computer in the lap -- with thighs close together to balance the computers -- also increases scrotal temperature. Still, the heat generated by the laptops adds to the problem.

In the study, the bottom of the laptop computers rose from about 88 degrees Fahrenheit (31 degrees Celsius) to almost 104 degrees Fahrenheit (40 degrees Celsius) after an hour. Both brands had similar temperature increases.
"Working on laptop computers in a laptop position causes significant scrotal temperature elevation as a result of heat exposure and posture-related effects," say the researchers.

Is the increase enough to impair male fertility? The researchers can't say for sure. However, they note that another study showed that sperm concentration dropped by 40% when median daytime scrotal temperature rose by 1 to 2 degrees Fahrenheit (or 1 degree Celsius).

More than 60 million laptop computers are expected to be in use by 2005, with another 90 million worldwide, the researchers say. Calling for more studies, they suggest that teenage boys and young men may want to limit their use of laptop computers on their laps”.

4 Children and the Internet

The subject of children and the internet is a sensitive issue in the world today just as there are dangers in world, there are also dangers in the virtual world of the cyberspace.

The dangers of children using the internet are:-

In the Internet you don’t know who you are talking to so children talking on chat channels, thinking they are talking to a child could really be talking to someone out to harm them.

Here is what msnbc says about this subject, found at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6083442/

“Instant messaging on the computer has become the phone for kids today. Children spend hours chatting online with their friends, and sometimes with strangers. A recent study found that one in five children online is approached by a sexual predator, a predator who may try to set up a face-to-face meeting”.

On the internet Children could easily get hold of things they should not, i.e. sexual images and information about things they are too young to know about, also on chat channels children can be bullied

Here is what New York Times says

“The Internet is making matters a great deal worse, parents and experts say, because it provides a cloak of anonymity and removes physical size and bravery from the equation. Children as young as 7 or 8, who would never have dared to belittle or confront a classmate face to face, are empowered to be vulgar and vengeful at the keyboard”.

Also this it what the BBC says about the subject of cyber bullying the an article called “Cyber-bullying 'on the increase'” found at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/leicestershire/6167460.stm

“Charity workers in the East Midlands say they are now getting hundreds of calls about so-called cyber-bullying. Childline staff in Nottingham said new technology had dramatically increased their workload.

The charity receives about 4,500 calls a day nationally and about a quarter of these come from victims of bullying. Technology is also being used to tackle the problem. Leicestershire youngsters put their own experiences on a website, to show others they are not alone.

Bullying is one problem dealt with by The Jitty, which was set up by Leicestershire Youth Service to deal with issues affecting young people. James Hunter, of Leicestershire Youth Service, said: Bullying's always going to be pervasive but it's going to be less and less a problem.

People who think there's anonymity on the internet are sadly mistaken. You are uniquely identifiable and you can be traced." One 14-year-old girl from Leicestershire said she was cyber-bullied for two years via regular texts and e-mails which sometimes came every few minutes leaving her seriously traumatised.

They made me feel guilty, but I couldn't talk to anyone," she said. "Basically they were saying stuff about killing me, killing my boyfriend, telling me to watch my step. Then they rang my dad up, and told him that I was pregnant, which shook my family up for a bit.

The government said it was taking the problem very seriously. Schools Minister Jim Knight MP said: "Cyber-bullies can get to you in your own home, through your e-mail, through text messaging, through the use of video from video phones. And that means that children don't feel safe anywhere”

But having said this the Internet is a good learning tool when used carefully as you can learn about any thing without the cost of buying books, which can be expensive. I think it is important that Parents of children should know the dangers of the internet and be computer literate so they can guide their children

Parents also need to educate their children, just as parents would not leave their children in the world they should not leave their children alone in the virtual world of the cyberspace.

The use of filters is very important as they can block children accessing unwanted sites.

Parents need to educate their children about piracy on the Internet and not passing the children’s contact details online.

In an article Keeping kids safe in cyberspace by Daniel D. Broughton, M.D., FAAP the author says this about the subject of piracy, found at http://aapnews.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/26/8/11

“One of the first things to understand is that being online is the same as being in public. While using the Internet at home may feel safe and secure, there are very real privacy issues.

Personal information can be obtained easily when children create "member profiles" with Internet service providers, on a Web site or in a chat room. "Cookies" allow outside sources to see inside one's home computer. This information can be misused in a variety of ways, including marketing directed at children and by child predators.”

Also parents need to educate their children about strangers online and the danger of talking to them

4.1 Evaluating journal articles:

There are lots of journals on the subject of the Internet and children; in this section we will be reviewing 5 journals in this subject

The journals I am going to be looking at in the subject of children and the internet is as follows:-

4.1.1 Children’s use of the internet: reflections on the emerging research agenda

Sonia Livingstone, new media & society Vol5(2):147–166 http://nms.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/5/2/147.pdf

In the view that more people are joining the internet, this journal looks into children’s use of the internet; it also looks at the dangers of the internet regarding children i.e. strangers and the internet, marketing to children and chat rooms

It does not use technical jargon; it also gives facts and figures about Internet and what sites children go to when online

It also looks at some of the research done already about children on the Internet. And gives recommendations on the continuing research issues that must be addressed, it also has lots of references to other journals about the subject

The journal is easy to read and follow and does not have any technical long words that a novice to the subject would not understand and has a conclusion at the end

The journal has lots of useful information about the subject that parents, teachers will find useful when it comes to children and the Internet

The benefits of the internet are well set out in this journal the benefits the journal raises are:-The internet can be used for education

The internet teaches children about technology

Some children learn though play and there are fun education sites on the internet (Having said this it also states that the Internet is hard to use for children, but children without computers will miss out)

  • The dangers of the internet are well set out in this journal, the dangers the journal raises are:-
  • That children are easily districted and spend lots of time on the internet and not doing work.
  • Some parents are not computer experts and don’t know much about the internet to guide their children.
  • The need to supervise children’s use of the internet.
  • Computers form health hazards, stunt the imagination, isolate children and create developmental problems
  • Privacy of children on the internet
  • Access to sexual material
  • Unwanted or inappropriate sexual content made with minors by adult strangers
  • Marketing practices targeted at children on the internet
  • The digital divide between the haves and the have-nots

It also looks into other media besides the internet such as computer games and television

The argument of the journal is well rounded and baring in mind all we have discussed about this journal I award this journal top marks when it comes to the subject of children and the internet

4.1.2 The Children Lost in Cyberspace?

G. Chele,et al eurocon 2005, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/10849/34189/01630064.pdf

This journal looks at the internet use in Romania and set out how to tell if a person has an internet addiction

This journal looks into the danger of addictive patterns of children on the internet; it also looks at the benefits of the internet

There are a number of issues this journal addresses these are, Children know more about the internet and computers than their parents do, Anonymity on the internet

Social isolation, depression, loneliness, and bad time management suffered by some people over using the internet, the dangers of children replacing sleeping time for internet time.

This journal again is well written and contains lots facts about how Romanians use the internet plus how to tell if a person has an internet addiction and has conclusion at the end

The benefits of the internet are well set out in this journal The benefits the journal raises are:-

  • The internet makes conduction research easier
  • Its easy to find information about recreation and entertainment
  • Its easy to communication with friends It’s a low cost powerful educational tool

The dangers of the internet are well set out in this journal, The dangers the journal addresses are:-

  • Internet addiction
  • Children know more about the internet and computers than their parents do Anonymity on the internet
  • Social isolation, depression, loneliness, and bad time management suffered by some people over using the internet
  • The dangers of children replacing sleeping time for internet time
  • Marketing to children by companies on the internet
  • Children not knowing if information on the internet is truthful
  • Children using the internet and not doing other things such as exercise or school work

The argument of the journal is well rounded, bearing all that we have baring in mind all we have discussed about this journal I award this journal top marks when it comes to the subject of children and the internet

4.1.3 Developmental considerations for determining appropriate Internet use guidelines for children and adolescents

Patricia M. Greenfield Applied Developmental Psychology 25 (2004) 751–762, http://www.cdmc.ucla.edu/downloads/Developmental.pdf

This journal sets out to prepare a guideline for workshops on non technical ways to protect youth on the internet.

It also looks at chat room and discusses the Psychology and physical dangers of chat rooms to youth, it also looks at marketing issues of the internet to children and how this affects their values and buying habits.

It also looks at how the internet effects youth and children’s sexuality and aggression and how this affects society at large

The journal is easy to read and contains lots of useful information that non technical people would understand, it also has the conclusion running through the paper

It gives lots of information about how to keep children safe online

There are no benefits raised but this is understandable owing to the nature of the journal

The dangers of the internet are well set out in this journal, The dangers the journal raises are:-

  • Chat rooms
  • Marketing to children
  • The effects of degrading chat about sex on adolescent sexuality
  • The effects of internet commercialism on children’s values and their consumer practices
  • The dangers of unsupervised teen chat
  • Unwanted or inappropriate sexual content made with minors by adult strangers
  • The dangers of physical aggression in chat room
  • The dangers of hate sites and racism and prejudice in chat rooms
    Anonymity issues raised by the internet

The argument of the journal can be one sided, baring in mind all we have discussed about this journal this journal is very useful but lacking the other side of the argument which for this journal is needed

4.1.4 Comment: Keeping Children from the Internet’s ‘Red Light District’: Increased Regulation or Improved Technology?

Angela M. Xenakis, north carolina journal of law and technology volume 3, issue 2: spring 2002, http://www.jolt.unc.edu/vol3/Xenakis-V3I2.pdf

The Internet provides unlimited access to information, it also as unlimited access to material that children should not be looking at this journal set out to discuss the dangers of websites that contain pornographic material.

It also sets out to look at the law, issues of free speech on the internet and how to stop children accessing this material using filterers etc.

It also sets out how the USA can regulate these sites

The journal is again well written and easy to follow with lots of useful information about the USA law and how to stop children accessing pornography on the internet

Again as the pervious journal there are no benefits raised but this is understandable owing to the nature of the journal<

The dangers of the internet are well set out in this journal, the dangers the journal raises are:-

  • Free speech on the internet
  • How easy it is to access pornography on the internet

The argument of the journal one sided baring in mind all we have discussed about this journal this journal is very useful, it also can be forgiven in not giving both sided argument owing to the nature of the journal

4.1.5 Does Home Internet Use Influence the Academic Performance of Low-Income Children?

Linda A. Jackson, et al, Developmental Psychology Copyright 2006 by the American Psychological Association, 2006, Vol. 42, No. 3, 000–000.http://www.apa.org/releases/dev423-jackson.pdf

This looks in too how in the internet affects or benefits education and test scores, it looks into how children use the internet for education and is there a culture gap between white middle class and African American people when it comes to the use of the internet

it looks into the danger of the gap between the haves and the have-nots in the sense that are poor families disadvantaged when it comes to the internet

It also looks into how older and younger children use the internet and is there a difference

The journal is well written and easy to understand but in does not go into detail about the ethical issues of the internet

The benefits of the internet are well set out in this journal, The benefits raised by the journal are:-

  • The internet helps with hard subjects such as maths
  • The internet is a good source of information
  • Children who use the internet as found in the journal will have higher test scores then those who don’t use the internet (having said this the journal says that their has not been enough work done yet)
  • The internet is interactive and as lots of oral and visual cues that will help the child to learn
  • Its easy to communicate with friends and family

The dangers of the internet are well set out in this journal, The dangers raised by the journal are:-

  • Children who don’t have computers in their home will miss out and the gap between the haves and the have nots will get bigger
  • Computers are expensive and poor families can not afford them
  • Strangers in chat rooms mentioned in the journal but does not go into detail about them and raises the point because of this issue children are not free to discuss things in chat rooms

The journal raises the point that the internet is not a welcoming environment for African America children and the rises the issue of a culture divide when it comes to technology.

The argument of the journal is well rounded, bearing all that we have baring in mind all we have discussed the journal is very good but does not go into the ethical issues in depth it only mentions them

4.2 Adult safety online

As well as protecting our kids we need to protect ourselves the list below will help you do that

  • Be careful who to give your credit card numbers to (banks do not send emails asking for your personnel details)
  • Use virus checkers (please see protecting your computer section)
  • Use ad-aware software
  • Use firewalls (please see protecting your computer section)
  • If something sounds to good to be true it’s not, there are lots of people out there, out to get your money don’t let them, don’t answer emails saying you have won
  • money or someone wants to give you money because these emails are not true and there is a lot of them about.
  • Adults can be addicted to the internet as much as children can, keep a track of how long you are on-line for and set your limits

5 Reference and Further reading

Cyber-bullying 'on the increase' BBC[www] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/leicestershire/6167460.stm

Tips for Avoiding Computer Crime [www]

http://www.rbs2.com/cvict.htm

http://www.rbs2.com/ccrime.htm

Kid in cyberspace guide [www] http://www.safetyed.org/help/kids.html

children lost in cyberspace – china’s internet addiction [www] http://www.china.org.cn/english/Life/117105.htm

Internet Safety and Ethics for the Classroom [www] http://www.readingonline.org/editorial/ethics.html

Wired safety – children’s safety online [www] http://www.wiredsafety.org/

Church Computing a Strategy by Garth Morgan published by Jay books 1987)

Predators in cyberspace [www] http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art43573.asp

Pornography and protecting kids from it [www] http://www.protectkids.com/

Porn, Privacy, and Kids [www] http://www.thenewatlantis.com/archive/2/soa/childinternetprint.htm

The Science Behind Pornography Addiction [www] http://commerce.senate.gov/hearings/testimony.cfm?id=1343&wit_id=3912

Protecting Children on the Internet [www] http://gsulaw.gsu.edu/lawand/papers/fa01/davis/

Internet Strangers [www] http://childrentoday.com/resources/articles/realdangers.htm

INTERNET ADDICTION [www] http://www.netaddiction.com/articles/newdisorder.htm

Net-illiterate 'failing children' [www] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4490879.stm

Information Warfare and Security By Dorothy E. Denning Published by Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1998.

Internet Besieged By Dorothy E. Denning and Peter J. Denning Published by Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1997.

Computers Under Attack By Peter J. Denning (editor), Published by Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1990.

Computer-Related Risks By Peter G. Neumann Published by Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1995.

Keeping kids safe in cyberspace by Daniel D. Broughton [www] http://aapnews.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/26/8/11

Children’s use of the Internet: reflections on the emerging research agenda by Sonia Livingstone new media & society Vol5(2):147–166 [www] http://nms.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/5/2/147.pdf

The Children Lost in Cyberspace? by G. Chele,et al eurocon 2005 [www] http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/10849/34189/01630064.pdf

Developmental considerations for determining appropriate Internet use guidelines for children and adolescents by Patricia M. Greenfield Applied Developmental Psychology 25 (2004) 751–762 [www] http://www.cdmc.ucla.edu/downloads/Developmental.pdf

Comment: Keeping Children from the Internet’s ‘Red Light District’: Increased Regulation or Improved Technology? by Angela M. Xenakis north carolina journal of law & technology volume 3, issue 2: spring 2002 [www] http://www.jolt.unc.edu/vol3/Xenakis-V3I2.pdf

Does Home Internet Use Influence the Academic Performance of Low-Income Children? by Linda A. Jackson, et al Developmental Psychology Copyright 2006 by the American Psychological Association 2006, Vol. 42, No. 3, 000–000 [www] http://www.apa.org/releases/dev423-jackson.pdf

Dangers children face online by Chris Hansen msnbc [www] http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6083442/

Data protection act http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1998/80029--a.htm

Computer misuse acts http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1990/Ukpga_19900018_en_1.htm

Massachusetts institute of technology (MIT) http://web.mit.edu/environment/programs/ergonomics.html 

Business for higher awards By Dave Needham, Rob Dransfield, Martin Coles, Rob Harris and Maureen Rawlinson Published by Heinemann in 2003

Hard drive secrets sold cheaply bbc [www] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3788395.stm

Permanently Erase Deleted Files by Stephen Elderkin Law Enforcement Technology Magazine [www] whitecanyon company website http://www.whitecanyon.com/deleted-files-let-10-2003.php

knowledge base vicomsoft company [www] http://www.vicomsoft.com/knowledge/reference/firewalls1.html

how stuff works [www] http://www.howstuffworks.com/virus.htm

The computer security resource center (CSRC) [www] http://csrc.nist.gov/virus/

Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets and Solutions (Hacking Exposed) by Stuart McClure, Joel Scambray, George Kurtz Published by Osborne/McGraw-Hill,U.S. 2005

Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World by Bruce Schneier Published by Hungry Minds Inc,U.S 2004

The Art of Deception: Controlling the Human Element of Security by Kevin D. Mitnick, William L. Simon Published by Hungry Minds Inc,U.S. 2003

The Art of Intrusion: The Real Stories Behind the Exploits of Hackers, Intruders and Deceivers by Kevin D. Mitnick, William L. Simon Published by Hungry Minds Inc,U.S. 2005

Comfort at Your Computer: Body Awareness Training for Pain-free Computer Use by Paul Linden Published by North Atlantic Books,U.S. 2000

Laptop Computers May Affect Male Fertility [www] http://www.webmd.com/content/article/98/104676.htm WebMD

De montfort University – the centre for computers and social responsibility [www] http://www.ccsr.cse.dmu.ac.uk/

Portable Appliance Testing information [www] http://www.pat-testing.info/

The Soul in Cyberspace by Douglas Groothuis Published by Baker Pub Group 1997